All You Need To Know About Stepper Motor

Stepper motor work as “DC-motors” and spin in distinct steps. Their structure is based on multiple coils, and all are well-organized in a civilized group, it is called “|Phase|.” It completes one phase by maintaining the sequence and rotate a single cycle at a time. Moreover, with the help of computer-controlled steps, you may attain accurate speed and control; just because of this reason, stepper motors are used for specific applications to control motion. Stepper-motors are available in various styles, sizes, and other electronic characteristics.

The most unlimited usage of the stepper motor is in “|Small-Robotics|, |Medical-Appliances|, |Textile/Gaming-Machines|, and |Air-Control-Valves|. In this guide, you will get to know more about stepper motors, their usage, and requirements.

a). Stepper Motor Working Ways:

Stepper motor is very useful in several scenarios. Some of the best working areas of stepper motors.

1. Error-free Position:

It is the perfect choice for applications that need accuracy in repeatable cycles, such as 3D printers.

2. Ratio-Control:

Stepper-Motors used to control the rotational speed in robotics and other places where speed-control is required. Most of the automation applications are on this list.

3. Low/High-Torque:

It can produce more torque at low speed for the machines that need a low speed with a higher torque rate. Usually, the standard DC motors can not provide this much torque at low speed. It can be used to get a higher torque ratio at a controlled or specific speed. However, it adjustable in all conditions.

4. Efficiency-Rate:

Their current usage is free from any load. Stepper motors tend to run hot and considered low efficient in some instances.

5. Position:

The integrated position is not available for stepper motor; you can arrange it as per requirement and add more switches for limit if needed.

b). Variation in stepper motors:

Stepper motors have several variations to serve on different purposes. It is very much essential to get knowledge of them.

1. Sizes:

stepper motors sizes

The essential thing to notice is that a motor has to do to its work, as per your requirements, but you also need to check the sizes of motors and select the right size according to the need. Stepper motors are ordinarily available in various sizes and qualities, you can see small to large, and extra-large variations, it depends on the type of work and utilization of motor.

Motors come with torque ratings; all you have to check the strength you need. The standard size that uses in 3D printing is “NEMA-17”. On the other side, small motors tend to have more usage in small-robotics and other objects. Industrial and CNC machines work on the larger “NEMA-Frames.”

Faceplate dimensions can be defined with NEMA-Numbers, but they do not favorable to know other characteristics of a motor. Two NEMA-17 motors may have unique mechanical/electrical specifications with not interchangeable features.

2. Step-Count:

The next foremost thing is considering the required position resolution. The approximate number of steps counts are 24,48 and 200 per revolution, that is ranging from 4-400—an indication of revolution based on degrees on a single level. A 200 step per revolution motor is the same as a 1.8-degree motor.

Acquiring high resolution is dependent on torque and speed. High-step count motors are considered best at the similar size of lower “PRM’s” and many step rates are required to turn the motor into low torque as compared to similar small step count motors at the same speed.

3. Stepper Motors Gearing:

There’s one more way to get higher positioning resolution, and that is gearing. A single 32:2 gear is used for the motor with eight steps per revolution, and it will generally result as a 256 steps motor. Some little gear steppers are capable of generating a significant increase in torque. So a gear can have an immense effect to increase the torque. However, the primary factor is speed. Commonly stepper motors have some limitations; that’s why it is more useful for low per-minute resolution applications.

One more issue with geared motors is a backlash when they change direction to reverse, it needs a break, and this can severely affect the position accuracy.

 4. Shaft-Style:

Shaft-style plays a vital role in the interface of the motor. It has three divergent styles.

  •  D-Shaft:

D-Shaft is available in different diameters to put in all designed machines. It has one side flatter that prevents slipping. They are quality choice if the torque is high.

  • Geared-Shaft:

Some shafts come with gear teeth for a perfect combination with modules, and they are usually made up to get fit into the modular match.

  • Screw-Shaft:

Screw-Shafts are specially designed. Their small versions can meet up as head positions with many different disk drives. It is indeed an extraordinary invention for maintaining the required balance in the machines.

5. Wiring Differences:

Here are some common and most used types of stepper-motor wiring. Let’s start it.

stepper motors wiring

  • “Unipolar-Drivers”

Unipolar-drivers always work in the same way and energize the phase. One lead will be positive, and the second will be negative. It is good to implement with a regular transistor circuit. The wrong side is that it has a low torque rate, as it energizes half of the coils.

  • “Bipolar-Drivers”

Bipolar stepper motor drivers tend to use the H-bridge circuit to reverse the current flow from phases. It repeatedly energizes the step and engages all coils in the motor to generate more torque.



Stepper motors are excellent as compared to other motors, but one thing can create a big difference between the selection, and that is your requirement. You must know your need, and if you are working on small applications or other machines that are capable of stepper motors, then it would be a not ignorable option. Always check the wire, shaft, and other parts of the stepper motor to get more expected results. Bigger motors may attract you by their size and speed, but it will not be a fit for small machines, same as small motors will not produce high torque and speed in the big tools.


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